Philosophy in the general sense is a wisdom of human life to provide a holistic view of life based on reflections on life and scientific experience. While in the development of the educational process requires a good mind and mindset in an effort to educate people from ignorance.
Humans have and the mind to solve problems in developing the process of not knowing to know, from having a primitive nature to the modern, and humans need philosophy in the educational process.
So that the education process can run well is able to philosophize in overcoming the problems that arise in the education process. Read Factors That Influence Learning
Relationship between Philosophy and Educational Theory
Humans are related to philosophy in the education process because humans must be able to philosophize in the world of education. Able to run the education process using sophisticated science and technology.
The functional relationship between philosophy and educational theory, can be described as follows:
Understanding philosophy in the sense of analysis is one of the approaches used by education experts in solving educational problems and compiling educational theories, in addition to using other scientific methods.
Philosophy also serves to provide direction so that educational theories that have been developed by experts, which are based on and according to certain philosophical views and streams, have relevance to real life.
This means directing that theories with a view of educational philosophy that have been developed can be applied in educational practices in accordance with the realities and needs of life that also develops in society.
Philosophy, including philosophy of education, also has a function to provide guidance and direction in the development of educational theories into educational or pedagogical science.
In addition to the functional relationship, between philosophy and educational theory, there is also a supplementary relationship, as stated by Ali Saefullah in his book between Philosophy and education, as follows:
- Activities to formulate the basics, and objectives of education, the concept of the nature of human nature, as well as the conception of the nature and aspects of education as well as this moral education.
- Activities to formulate an educational system or theory that includes educational politics, educational leadership or educational organizations, educational and teaching methodologies, including acculturation patterns and the role of education in the development of society and the country.
The above definition summarizes two branches of education, namely: educational philosophy and systems or theories of education and the relationship between the two is that one supplement to the other and both are treated by each teacher as an educator and not just as a teacher in a particular field of study.
Position of Philosophy in Education
In science, philosophy has a central position, origin, or principal. Because philosophy is the first is the only human effort in the spiritual field to achieve truth or knowledge.
Gradually according to their nature, humans are never satisfied with reviewing a matter from a general angle, but also want to pay attention to specific things.
The position or relationship between philosophy and science or philosophical thinking and scientific thinking is inseparable from genetic epistemology, namely phases of human thought and thought by taking an example of development from the first year of childhood to adulthood as described by Jean Piaget.
The main service of Jean Piaget is his description of the development of children in terms of behavior consisting of four phases-namely:
The sensorimotor phase, takes place between the age of 0 years and the age of 2 where the child’s way of thinking is still largely determined by the ability of the sensory experience, so that very few actual thinking events occur, where the response has no role at all in the child’s thought and thought processes.
Pre-operational phase, around the age of 5-8 years, which is marked by the activity of thinking by starting to use responses (called functional logic].
Concrete operational phase, namely the activity of thinking to solve problems concretely and with concrete objects.
Formal Operation Phase, in children beginning at age 11 years. The child has begun to think abstractly, by using general concepts by using hypotheses and processing them systematically in order to solve problems even though the child has not been able to imagine the possibilities of how they are realized.
It can be concluded that science receives its foundation from philosophy, including:
- Every knowledge has objects and problems
- Philosophy also provides common grounds for all knowledge and on the basis of that general formulation of the state of science.
- In addition, philosophy also provides specific foundations used in each of the sciences.
- The basis given by philosophy is about the nature of knowledge from all sciences. It is not possible for each science to leave itself as a science by leaving the conditions determined by philosophy.
- Philosophy also provides methods or ways for every science.